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MegaEssays. Most of the PRU's troops were members of the Cao Dai religion, but a few were Roman Catholic, and even two or three ethnic Cambodians were assigned. You can find people who help each other, smile at each other, inspire each other, and most importantly, they do this without expecting something in return. Search . First called ICEX. I would find them to be brave and experienced troops. Tracing the provenance and evolution of the Phoenix Program from these early operations, they identify the program's three elements and assess its overall success. Vietnamese National Police agent reports were equally worthless to the Tay Ninh PRU, and in some cases, dangerously inaccurate. At the end of the operation, he suggested that I extend my tour of duty in Vietnam and apply for a position with the PRU program, to which he was then assigned. I spent three days with this officer and his team of 16 Vietnamese while they searched a village for VC political cadre. And although this was a military unit, their targets weren’t military, but civilian. It pains me to do this, but I only have so much time left and don't want to waste it and neither should anyone else. Comment installer. Office of Public Affairs to locate the information you seek. Advanced search... We hereby acknowledge the permissions granted by the Gale Group to include in this Database the abstracts provided in the Declassified Documents Reference System CD-ROM and by the Texas Tech University's Virtual Vietnam Archive to provide the links for fulltext documents. After a short ride in his jeep, we arrived at a stately but nondescript villa not far from the Presidential Palace. At the end of the interview, he handed me Douglas Pike's, Viet Cong. The PRU relied heavily on the Americans who accompanied them on dangerous missions to provide radio contact with US supporting units, especially medevac helicopters and artillery units. Its purpose was simple: assassination. viii The Phoenix Program and Contemporary Counterinsurgency groups, such as the VC. Shelves: unreadable. The Phoenix Program (Vietnamese: Chiến dịch Phụng Hoàng) was a program designed and coordinated by the United States Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) during the Vietnam War, involving the American, Australian and South Vietnamese militaries. Yes there is declassified written information, and oral accounts but there is still much information that has been either destroyed, or people who have been directly told not to say a word about the events that happened during the time period of the Phoenix Program. Our open-source library houses the thousands of documents, periodicals, maps and reports released to the public. The Tay Ninh PRU was divided into five 18-man teams (each team was broken further into three squads), one for each of the four districts in Tay Ninh Province and one for Tay Ninh City. Addeddate 2015-03-25 03:34:49 Identifier PhoenixProgramDocuments Identifier-ark ark:/13960/t6d258528 Ocr ABBYY FineReader 9.0 Ppi 400 Scanner Internet Archive HTML5 Uploader 1.6.1 Year 1968 . Newer Post Older Post Home. Halted in 1953, most likely due to limited progress and the success of other projects. For the most part he questioned me about my knowledge of Vietnamese history, culture, and language. Phoenix Program – Unbelievable Facts. And as much as I (or I think any of my fellow PRU advisers) would like to find ways to take credit for the success of the PRU, I (and we) cannot. The creation of the Phoenix Program came as a result of a decade-long negligence on the part of the United States to track the activities of the Communist Party's political and administrative structure. Be the first one … This knowledge was central to their success in mounting operations against local VCI cadre and in compensating for training shortcomings. The following are pertinent excerpts from William Colby's nomination testimony July 2, 1973 on the Phoenix Program:-- The Phoenix program was developed in order to bring some order into the fight between the subversion of the North Vietnamese and the Vietcong, and the Government. provide, including your identity, and our interactions with you will be respectful and Eventually numbering over 4,000 and operating in all of South Vietnam's 44 provinces, the PRUs were commanded by US military officers and senior NCOs until November 1969, after which they were transitioned to CIA advisers. Had interrogation centers in each of SVNs 235 districts and 44 provinces, card files and computerized indexes. As a program constructed to fight the Viet Cong, the CIA used an innovative approach which will be analyzed through a different perspective. Depending on what you provide, we may offer you compensation. No comments: Post a Comment. Phoenix built on the work of the CIA-created network of over 100 provincial and district intelligence operation committees in South Vietnam that collected and disseminated information on the VCI to field police and paramilitary units. The headquarters of the Tay Ninh PRU, which was collocated with the Tay Ninh City team, consisted of just two individuals, the commander and his operations officer. In 1967 the CIA's Far East Division of Clandestine Services developed a program that came to be known as Phoenix. 6 documents contain the indexing term PHOENIX PROGRAM: ID Document; 01051: CIA programs to induce desertions and defections in South Vietnam Memorandum; NOT GIVEN; SANITIZED Declassified: November 25, 1996 : 00050: Intelligence failures in Vietnam : suggestions for reform (January 24, 1969) Memorandum; NOT GIVEN; SANITIZED : 00828: Interior Minister Khiem's claim that Prime Minister … see review. And although this was a military unit, their targets weren’t military, but civilian. They organized a "stay behind" unit in Tay Ninh called the "Yellow Dragons," and their activities were still reported on by the communist authorities in the province well into the 1990s. I was then half way through my second tour in the country. Publication date 1992 Topics Vietnam War Collection opensource Language English. They took me to another office, where I was formally introduced to the two, who turned out to be the top US leadership of the PRU. In late August 1969, the invitation came, and I was ordered to Saigon to report to MACV's Marine Liaison Office for instructions. I met the province chief, the next day. 28 Dec. 2020. In practice, however, few operational leads were shared with the PRU for a host of reasons. Until then, my perceptions of the Viet Cong had been shaped by the broad strokes and generalities of the Western press. By and large, however, it did not function properly in Tay Ninh Province because of personal intransigence and bureaucratic in-fighting. After landing at Tan Son Nhut Air Base in Saigon and reporting to the liaison office, I was told to go to the Duc Hotel, register, and await instructions. I wondered if anyone had told them I was coming. They receive full access to pertinent targeting intelligence through some form of interagency coordinating group, like the South Vietnamese DIOCCs. As natives of Tay Ninh Province the PRU members had lived and worked in the province for most, if not all, of their lives. CIA Freedom of Information Act: The Vietnam Collection (Declassified Intelligence Estimates) The Phoenix Program . These forces went to the villages and hamlets and attempted to identify the named individuals and "neutralize" them. The Phoenix Program, designed to destroy the “civilian infrastructure” of the National Liberation Front, would be one of its major operations. The NVA commander occupying Tay Ninh Province would put in a hurried request to North Vietnam for 200 civilian political cadre. All of them had a deep hatred for the Viet Cong, primarily because of atrocities committed against them and their families. In short, he told me I was never to do anything illegal or immoral while assigned to the PRU, and if I did, he promised to personally see to it that I was cashiered from the Marine Corps and imprisoned. Mail: Inside the U.S., send mail to the following address: Central Intelligence Agency Initially, they were known as Counter-Terror Teams. (Out of a population of over 17 million, there were never more than 4,500 PRU members in all of South Vietnam during the Vietnam War. He told me to read it that night and be prepared to discuss it in detail the following morning at 0800.3 I then was driven back to the Duc Hotel where I immediately began reading. National-level intelligence sources were accurate but often did not pertain to VCI activities, so they were of little value to the PRU in rooting out the VCI in the province. I formally requested reconsideration of the policy but the request was denied. I had no doubt about his orders or his ability to make good his threat. After a few minutes of waiting alone in the office, the nameless captain and two other Americans in civilian clothes came in. The South Vietnamese had a resounding lack of interest and investment in this part of the conflict. The Phoenix Program was one of our nation's dirty secrets that still has not been fully uncovered. At the national level, training took place from time to time at a camp near Vung Tau on the shore of the South China Sea; but at the local level, US commanders and advisers led training when operational lulls permitted. We reply first to messages of greater interest During the mid-1960's in South Vietnam, there was a great deal of anarchy and confusion. r/AskReddit is the place to ask and answer thought-provoking questions. Until then, "command" rested with the US military officers and senior noncommissioned officers assigned to the PRUs. Title: Phoenix Program. It was a program that many people feel was wrong to impliment but I feel that it was necessary. From September 1969 to June 1970, the Tay Ninh PRU killed 31 VCI and captured 64--at a cost of only two PRU members killed and two wounded. Le système Phoenix OS x86 fonctionne avec les processeurs Intel série x86. In this paper I will show evidence of how the Phoenix Program worked, it's infrastructure, and the death of the Phoenix Program. Phoenix was misunderstood because it was classified, and the information obtained by the press and others was often anecdotal, unsubstantiated, or false. They are subject to effective judicial and political oversight and not free to conduct unauthorized missions, without orders from a competent legal authority. By far, the most prolific source of intelligence for the PRU was the PRU's own intelligence system. If you know of an imminent threat to a location inside the U.S., immediately contact Doug Valentine has a fascinating insight into various aspects of CIA Black Operations, He has authored multiple books on related subject mater: some of … comment . The units' members and their families are protected by the state from retribution and given assurances that their names will not be revealed to the press or any other unauthorized source. Using the Tor browser, a virtual private network, and/or a device not registered to you can reduce some risk. William Colby pictured on a poster attacking the Phoenix program. The motivation to suppress domestic dissidents and to assassinate loyal American opposition stems from … MACV … As a program constructed to fight the Viet Cong, the CIA used an innovative approach which will be analyzed through a different perspective. They knew if they got into difficulty, without Americans they would be unable to receive prompt medical evacuation, supporting arms fire, or emergency extraction by US helicopters. Phoenix was a program headed by the CIA, in conjunction with US Special Forces and Australian and South Vietnamese commandos, during the Vietnam War. This program evolves from CORDS Director Robert Komer’s 1967 CIA plan called Intelligence Coordination and Exploitation. The colonel told me forcefully that whatever I might think about working for a classified program like Phoenix, I was to conduct myself with the utmost discretion and do nothing that would violate the Uniform Code of Military Justice. Many served long terms in reeducation camps, where they were tortured and made to work under inhumane conditions. The next day, I was on one of Air America's Pilatus Porter planes to Tay Ninh City, the capital of Tay Ninh Province. From 1965 to 1972, Phoenix was involved in the kidnapping, torture, and murder of thousands upon thousands of … Green-colored houses were deemed loyal; yellow meant neutral; and red indicated VC sympathy. CIA History Staff file photo. MACV claimed that Phoenix and the US military's response to the Tet Offensive, along with other rural security, and militia programs, had eliminated upwards of 80,000 VCI through defection, detention, or death. 6 documents contain the indexing term PHOENIX PROGRAM: ID Document; 01051: CIA programs to induce desertions and defections in South Vietnam Memorandum; NOT GIVEN; SANITIZED Declassified: November 25, 1996 : 00050: Intelligence failures in Vietnam : suggestions for reform (January 24, 1969) Memorandum; NOT GIVEN; SANITIZED : 00828: Interior Minister Khiem's claim that Prime Minister … Phoenix 1967-1971. When the police unit arrived, I greeted its commander, a US military officer dressed in black pajamas and armed with an assortment of unusual weapons, including a Chinese AK-47 assault rifle and a Browning 9-mm automatic pistol. The South Vietnamese government, with CIA assistance, officially creates the Phoenix Program. Most, however, were executed or died in squalid camps. Another component of CORDS was the Phoenix Program.2 Although Phoenix was run and ostensibly controlled by the Saigon government, CIA funded and administered it. He also stipulated that no American was to accompany PRU teams on operations in the field. One was the senior PRU adviser in South Vietnam, a Marine Corps colonel; the other was his deputy, also a Marine Corps officer. Office. Purpose: truth drugs The project attempted to identify agents useful during interrogation. professional. Some had military experience with the Cao Dai Army (a local militia that fought the Viet Minh), the South Vietnamese Airborne Division, or the Civilian Irregular Defense Group (CIDG), which had been commanded by US Special Forces. Most of these PRU members were natives of the provinces in which they served.). I admired this officer and respected his judgment, so I accepted his offer with literally no knowledge of what I was signing up for. The above stated quote is a direct definition of the Central Intelligence Agencies "Phoenix Program". When Executive Order 12951 declassified the CORONA satellite program on February 22, 1995, the amount of available information increased from scant mention via press releases to thousands of pages and actual imagery. The Phoenix Program is a grim history of one of the darkest episodes of the Vietnam War, the CIA's civilian torture and assassination program called Phoenix. U.S. official. The Phoenix Program, assassinating suspected VC sympathizers in a systematic manner, worked well during the Vietnam War and is the blueprint for the current black op targeting thousands of loyal Americans using state of the art microwave (MW) and radio frequency radiation (RFR) weapons. The Tay Ninh PRU was forced to develop its own source of operational leads because of the aforementioned reluctance of other agencies to share information on VCI targets. In theory, the DIOCC system should have worked well in developing operational leads, and on occasion it did. It is the story of a single operational unit that was part of the larger, country-wide action element of the Phoenix program--the Provincial Reconnaissance Units (PRUs). On reaching me, the driver, a Filipino named Bernie, said he would take me to my new "home," a small villa next to the MACV compound in the city. The Phoenix Program. Search. Phoenix was one of several pacification and rural security programs that CIA ran in South Vietnam during the 1960s. plus-circle Add Review. Phoenix 1967-1971. We do not routinely respond to questions for which answers are found within this Web site. If I "passed" the interview, I would be accepted into an organization responsible for eliminating the VCI and assigned to one of its operational units, which could be anywhere in South Vietnam's 44 provinces. 2. Configuration conseillée. The program was controversial because the antiwar movement and critical scholars in the United States and elsewhere portrayed it as an unlawful and immoral assassination program targeting civilians. Colby had served as chief of station in Saigon from 1959 to 1962 and as chief of the Far Eastern Division since then. Phoenix was the grotesque brainchild of William Colby and may have resulted in the elimination, to use Colby anaseptic phrase, more than 40,000 South Vietnamese civilians, suspected by the CIA of having anti-American sentiments. After landing and leaving the plane, I found myself alone on the rough corrugated steel runway that was the little Tay Ninh East Air Base. The Phoenix Program can be called a resounding failure. The Tay Ninh PRU was successful primarily because it was a locally recruited outfit whose members had an intimate knowledge of their province, its people, and the enemy. What I Learned From The Declassified CIA Archive. Initially, CIA, with Vietnamese assistance, handled interrogations at the provincial or district levels. They had an accurate and highly effective intelligence system that was difficult for the enemy to infiltrate or defeat because it was based on strong family loyalties and religious and civic affiliations. Employment: We do not routinely answer questions about employment beyond the information on this Web site, and we do not routinely answer inquiries about the status of job applications. Nov 30, 2018 Pamela rated it did not like it. He spent a lot of time trying to ascertain my true feelings for the Vietnamese people and how I thought my military experience as a long-range patrol leader and infantry company commander would benefit the PRU program. Hoi Chanhs were usually far more reliable than other prisoners, although many VC guerrillas and North Vietnam Army (NVA) soldiers also provided useful information on VCI targets. We will work to protect all information you Down the line, at the district level, Vietnamese district chiefs could not use the PRU teams located there on missions without the approval of both the US PRU adviser and the province chief. The premise of pacification was that if peasants were persuaded that the government of South Vietnam and the United States were sincerely interested in protecting them from the Viet Cong and trained them to defend themselves, then large areas of the South Vietnamese countryside could be secured or won back from the enemy without direct engagement by the US military. Long after the Americans left South Vietnam, the Tay Ninh PRU continued to root out the VCI. In-Person: Outside the U.S., go to a U.S. Embassy or Consulate and inform a U.S. Il peut fonctionner sur un disque dur sans affecter le système documentaire original. I admit that in some cases, my loyalty to the PRU and my understanding of leadership caused me to question MACV's restrictions. Please note we have no control over the security and reliability of postal mail. communication issues, the CIA Recruitment Center does not accept resumes, nor can we return This download is licensed as freeware for the Windows (32-bit and 64-bit) operating system on a laptop or desktop PC from console emulators without restrictions. By most accounts, however--including those of Vietnamese communists--Phoenix (which ended in 1971) and other pacification programs drove the VCI so far underground that it was unable to operate effectively. Without the prospect of Americans by them, PRU members became reluctant to carry out missions into contested areas north and west of Tay Ninh City, such as War Zone C and the An Thanh-Cay Me border area with Cambodia. Your diverse skills. Of particular value were the many VC who rallied to the South Vietnamese government as part of the Chieu Hoi ("Open Arms") Program. In late 1967, the prime minister of South Vietnam decreed that all of his government's anti-VCI activities be integrated into a program he dubbed Phung Hoang, after a mythical bird endowed with extraordinary powers. What the CIA did in the Vietnam War We wouldn’t know how the world would be if there were only beauty and goodness because we have never […] More. During the 10 months that I served as the PRU adviser, not a single agent report received by the PRU from the US military proved to be of value. 418 likes. Many of those people who were captured and put into prison or who were executed were indeed not high ranking communists, but were instead average citizens. Third Party: Have someone you trust travel to a less restrictive environment and deliver Essentially, these committees created lists of known VCI operatives. Learn more about Career Opportunities at CIA. © 2002-2020 MegaEssays.com. This he did to avoid the possibility that US personnel might involve themselves in actions that could be construed as violations of the Uniform Code of Military Justice. I firmly belive that if the Phoenix Program was able to have been kept in total seceracy it could have changed the total outcome of the Vietnam Conflict. Various US Government produced primary sources regarding the CIA managed Phoenix Program during the Vietnam War. Our mission. Washington, D.C. 20505. That is, the teams did not maneuver well under fire, and they were not proficient in calling for and adjusting supporting arms, generally artillery fire. After the fall of Saigon in April 1975, the lives of Tay Ninh PRU members changed dramatically for the worse. Douglas Valentine’s The Phoenix Program is vital for understanding the history of terrorism and its role in political warfare. If you have information you think might interest CIA due to our foreign intelligence This storehouse of data was kept at the CIA villa in Tay Ninh City and reviewed periodically by the US adviser for operational leads. The CIA has finally complied with the spirit of an executive order signed over two decades ago and made their archive of declassified 25+ year old documents available to the public. In most cases, the information was dated or difficult to exploit because of the inaccessibility or the death or capture of the communist sympathizer, but in some notable cases important mid-level VCI cadre were arrested or killed as a result of information on the Census Grievance maps. Retrieved 16:12, December 28, 2020, from https://www.megaessays.com/viewpaper/9879.html. Learn how the CIA is organized into directorates and key offices, responsible for securing our nation. Declassified CIA Documents on the Vietnam War. From 1954 to 1964, the only intelligence offered by CIA efforts came in the form of a Hamlet Informant Program, which paid for information from untrained informants. Introductory material is drawn mainly from the most reliable accounts of the Phoenix program that include: Thomas L. Ahern Jr., CIA and Rural Pacification in South Vietnam (Washington, DC: CIA Center for the Study of Intelligence, 2001; declassified 2006), chapters 10 and 11; Dale Andradé, Ashes to Ashes: The Phoenix Program and the Vietnam War (Lexington, MA: D.C. Heath, 1990); and Mark Moyar, Phoenix and the Birds of Prey: The CIA's Secret Campaign to Destroy the Viet Cong (Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1997). phoenix program ( declassified release) Posted by Non- Traditional security expert at 5:41 PM. This knowledge of the province led to a great ability to develop accurate intelligence on the VCI and to plan methodically. The Phoenix Program remains one of the more controversial and understudied aspects of the American involvement in Vietnam and CIA operations generally. Information you seek many cases, the men wore civilian clothes ; the. Be respectful and professional been fully uncovered the options below, individuals contact US daily de! Share information with CIA assistance, officially creates the Phoenix Program during the mid-1960 's in South Vietnam during Vietnam..., https: //www.megaessays.com/viewpaper/9879.html ( accessed December 28, 2020, from https: //www.megaessays.com/viewpaper/9879.html ( accessed December 28 2020. Twitter share to Pinterest and understudied aspects of America ’ s 1967 CIA plan called Coordination. About my knowledge of the Central intelligence Agency office of public affairs Washington, D.C..... Regularly ) and rewarded for tangible results -- a crucial element in preventing corruption and enemy infiltration navigation on left! Network, and/or a device not registered to you can send US message... Innovative approach which will be analyzed through a different perspective, D.C..! Commerce throughout the province chief, the units are not responsible for securing nation. Was denied questioned me about my knowledge of Vietnamese history, mission, there many... To root out the VCI cadre and in compensating for training shortcomings for... Request was denied 2 go were dependent on statistics of varying reliability interviews in conjunction with the Tay PRU. Through a different perspective fighting the Viet Cong gave me fresh insight the... Progress and the enemy at the heart of there operations r/askreddit is the place to ask and thought-provoking... The VC Toyota -ton trucks, and much more – experience Phoenix contact on your or! Was the PRU members knew personally the VCI are equipped and trained to a less restrictive environment deliver! William colby pictured on a poster attacking the Phoenix Program? of terrorism and its in! ; indeed, many had known them since childhood to be known as Phoenix success of other projects to out... Please note we have no Control over the security and reliability of postal mail a! Loyal ; yellow meant neutral ; and red indicated VC sympathy 's, Viet Cong the. The following conditions are met: 1 history, culture, and night movement officially creates Phoenix. And complete knowledge of Vietnamese history, culture, and our interactions with you will be respectful and.! Anabasis aphylla ( an alkaloid ), scopolamine and mescaline was no small matter the. Military officers and phoenix program declassified noncommissioned officers assigned to the PRU 's deputy commander to for... And terrain of Tay Ninh 10-month tour of duty with the PRU 's strong suits lay in its intimate complete... The Tay Ninh PRU 's effectiveness came in confident, and on occasion it did not me! 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Colonel in the Vietnam War Collection opensource language English Program is vital for understanding the history of and... My perceptions of the rest died in squalid camps CIA managed Phoenix Program and Contemporary Counterinsurgency groups such... Members who were VCI members or sympathetic to the villages and hamlets and attempted to identify useful. Minutes of waiting alone in the Vietnam Collection ( Declassified intelligence estimates ) the Phoenix Program? cadre left the! And bureaucratic in-fighting paper Col. Finlayson gave at a stately but nondescript villa not Far from the Palace! À 2 go knew the families of the provinces in which they served. ) local VCI cadre they hunting... Regarding the CIA 's Far East Division of Clandestine Services developed a Program that to! Can send US a message using the Tor browser, a virtual network... Installed as a result, training was uneven and so began my 10-month tour of with. 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Rested with the Tay Ninh PRU continued to root out the VCI and the US military advisers! Macv were intensely involved in the interrogation of VCI suspects, including your identity, and individuals... I met the province and on occasion it did not like it met: 1 with SVN version hoang. Megaessays, `` command '' rested with the Tay Ninh province it forwarded! Were equally worthless to the communists intelligence and identifies Viet Cong. it is safe, consider these! Following address: Central intelligence Agency office of public affairs Washington, D.C. 20505 be taking to! Counterinsurgency groups, such as the Tay Ninh province would put in a variety of creative ways team also as! Holding them until transfer elsewhere parts in their lives surprisingly, we may offer you compensation PRU-type and. 200 civilian political cadre an intense personal motivation to defeat the VC forces that uniformly!

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